Spinal cord injury assessment slideshare

Injuries to the lumbar spine are severe but not life-threatening. Early treatment is important to the prognosis. Your resource for families facing spinal cord injuries and brain injuries, with articles, videos, and a real person to answer your questions or help find local resources we are here to help.

While it is easy to feel alone, there is a community ready to help. We were like little babies. And they never gave up hope! They actually felt the wrong that we were dealt, and they pursued justice as if we were part of their family. Everything else to come, is to come. The lumbar spine is located in the lower back below the cervical and thoracic sections of the spine. It consists of five vertebrae known as L1 - L5. These lumbar vertebrae or lumbar bones contain spinal cord tissue and nerves which control communication between the brain and the legs.

Damage to the lumbar spinal cord subsequently affects the hips and groin area, and may impact the lower abdominal muscles and thigh flexion as well.

Lumbar spinal cord injuries SCIs may be complete or incomplete and may affect one or both sides of the body. As is the case with other spinal cord injuriesthe completeness of the spinal cord damage will determine how severe the injury and symptoms will be for the patient. It is also important to understand that the lumbar vertebrae are much different than the upper segments of the spine because the spinal cord does not extend the entire length of the lumbar spine.

L2 is the lowest vertebral segment that contains spinal cord tissue. After that point, nerve roots exit each of the remaining lumbar levels beyond the spinal cord. Injuries below this level at the L3, L4, and L5 vertebrae affect the hips and legs and may cause numbness extending to the feet sciatica.

It may also harm the tip of the spinal cord known as the cauda equina, which is a bundle of spinal nerves and nerve roots that innervate the lower lumbar spine to the sacrum. As a fetus, vertebral segments directly relate to spinal cord segments. As an adult, the spinal column grows longer than the spinal cord and they no longer relate to one another. The spinal cord ends around the L1 or L2 vertebrae in adults, forming the conus medullaris.

The horsetail shaped area, which extends past the conus medullaris, is called the cauda equina. How many vertebrae are in the spine? Well, for the lumbar spinal column, there are five sections. Lumbar vertebrae anatomy is generally classified by dividing the lumbar spine into five distinct sections.

These sections are labelled as the L1-L5 vertebrae. These vertebrae are located near the base of the spine and naturally form a slight outward curve in the back, just below the inward curve of the thoracic spine. The lumbar vertebrae function to contain and protect the end of the spinal cord, as well as support the weight of the torso. The L1 vertebra is the topmost section of the lumbar spinal column.

This section of the spine contains a portion of the spinal cord. The L2 vertebra contains the end of the spinal cord proper—all other spinal vertebrae below this point only have spinal nerves, not the spinal cord. Injuries to the L2 vertebra can have effects similar to an L1 injury reduced hip flexion, paraplegia, and numbness.

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This is the middle vertebra of the lumbar spine, and the first vertebra to not contain a section of the spinal cord. The second to last section of the lumbar spinal column.

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While injuries to the L4 vertebra tend to be less severe than injuries to the spinal cord proper, symptoms include an inability to bend the feet in a particular direction. The L5 vertebra is the final section of the lumbar spine at least, it is for most people. Injury to the L5 spinal nerve bundle can cause numbness and weakness in the legs, but the extent of these symptoms can vary from case to case.The AANS offers complimentary resources to support the neurosurgery community during this challenging time.

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Tab will move on to the next part of the site rather than go through menu items. Other organizations conservatively estimate this figure to be aboutEvery year, an estimated 17, new SCIs occur in the U. Most of these are caused by trauma to the vertebral columnthereby affecting the spinal cord's ability to send and receive messages from the brain to the body's systems that control sensory, motor and autonomic function below the level of injury.

Motor vehicle accidents are the leading cause of SCI in the U.

spinal cord injury assessment slideshare

A complete SCI produces total loss of all motor and sensory function below the level of injury. Both sides of the body are equally affected. Even with a complete SCI, the spinal cord is rarely cut or transected. More commonly, loss of function is caused by a contusion or bruise to the spinal cord or by compromise of blood flow to the injured part of the spinal cord. In an incomplete SCIsome function remains below the primary level of the injury.

A person with an incomplete injury may be able to move one arm or leg more than the other or may have more functioning on one side of the body than the other. The scale is graded with letters:.

Spinal concussions can also occur. These can be complete or incomplete, but spinal cord dysfunction is transient, generally resolving within one or two days. Football players are especially susceptible to spinal concussions and spinal cord contusions.

The latter may produce neurological symptoms, including numbness, tingling, electric shock-like sensations and burning in the extremities.

spinal cord injury assessment slideshare

Open or penetrating injuries to the spine and spinal cord, especially those caused by firearms, may present somewhat different challenges. Most gunshot wounds to the spine are stable; i. Depending upon the anatomy of the injury, the patient may need to be immobilized with a collar or brace for several weeks or months so that the parts of the spine fractured by the bullet heals. In most cases, surgery to remove the bullet does not yield much benefit and may create additional risks, including infection, cerebrospinal fluid leak and bleeding.

In the trauma situation, the doctor will check first to make sure the patient has a working airway, is breathing and has a pulse. If there is obvious weakness or the patient is not fully awake, the patient is kept in a rigid cervical collar and on a spine board until a full imaging assessment can be complete. Historically, the radiological diagnosis of SCI started with x-rays.Designed for therapists working with patients who have suffered a spinal cord injury, this Therapist Guide helps clinicians to guide patients through coping effectiveness training CETwhich aims to improve skills for assessing stress, teaching a range of coping skills that can be used to tackle stress, and provide an opportunity for interaction with others who have similar experiences of spinal cord injury.

CET includes the identification of effective and ineffective responses to stress, especially those that are particularly unhelpful, such as disengagement, general avoidance, long term denial, and the expression of extreme emotion. By encouraging individuals to think critically about their behaviour in response to stressors, CET helps people avoid unproductive ways of coping. CET has proven to successfully reduce levels of depression and anxiety in individuals with spinal cord injury, and also resulted in changes in negative self-perception and improved self-efficacy.

A corresponding workbook provides monitoring forms, homework exercises, and other user-friendly techniques to continue the work outside of therapy. Keywords: coping effectiveness trainingCETspinal cord injurystressdisengagementgeneral avoidancelong term denialextreme emotioncognitive-behavioral therapyCBT. Access to the complete content on Oxford Clinical Psychology requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter without a subscription.

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A comprehensive literature review was conducted in pediatric and SCI-specific health-related quality-of-life HRQoL measures to create an item bank. Cognitive interviews were conducted on individuals with SCI and their parents to determine the relevance of items and age-appropriate wording of the preliminary module.

The research team regularly reviewed transcriptions of the interviews, and incorporated participant feedback to modify the modules.

Spinal Cord Injury

This process was repeated until content saturation was achieved. A total of 43 participants completed the cognitive interviews.

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Internet-based field testing is underway to finalize its development and validation. Data sharing is not applicable to this paper as no datasets were generated or analyzed during this study.

Post M, Noreau L. Quality of life after spinal cord injury. J Neuro Phys Ther. Health conditions: effect on function, health-related quality of life, and life satisfaction after traumatic spinal cord injury. A prospective observational registry cohort study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil.

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Whiteneck GG. Measuring what matters: key rehabilitation outcomes. Psychosocial outcomes among youth with spinal cord injury by neurological impairment. J Spinal Cord Med. Depression in adults who sustained spinal cord injuries as children or adolescents.

Measures and outcome instruments for pediatric spinal cord injury. Curr Phys Med Rehabil Rep. Recommendations for the National Institute for Neurologic Disorders and Stroke spinal cord injury common data elements for children and youth with SCI. Spinal Cord. Measuring activity limitation outcomes in youth with spinal cord injury. The pediatric measure of participation PMoP short forms. Development and initial validation of the pediatric neurorecovery scale.

Pediatr Phys Ther. Med Care ;—A spinal cord injury — damage to any part of the spinal cord or nerves at the end of the spinal canal cauda equina — often causes permanent changes in strength, sensation and other body functions below the site of the injury. If you've recently experienced a spinal cord injury, it might seem like every aspect of your life has been affected.

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You might feel the effects of your injury mentally, emotionally and socially. Many scientists are optimistic that advances in research will someday make the repair of spinal cord injuries possible. Research studies are ongoing around the world. In the meantime, treatments and rehabilitation allow many people with spinal cord injuries to lead productive, independent lives.

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Paralysis of the lower half of the body is called paraplegia. Paralysis below the neck, including both arms and legs, is called quadriplegia. Your ability to control your limbs after a spinal cord injury depends on two factors: the place of the injury along your spinal cord and the severity of injury to the spinal cord. The lowest normal part of your spinal cord is referred to as the neurological level of your injury. The severity of the injury is often called "the completeness" and is classified as either of the following:.

Your health care team will perform a series of tests to determine the neurological level and completeness of your injury. Anyone who experiences significant trauma to his or her head or neck needs immediate medical evaluation for the possibility of a spinal injury.

In fact, it's safest to assume that trauma victims have a spinal injury until proved otherwise because:. The spinal cord extends downward from the base of your brain.

It's made up of nerve cells and groups of nerves that carry messages between your brain and the rest of your body. Spinal cord injuries may result from damage to the vertebrae, ligaments or disks of the spinal column or to the spinal cord itself. A traumatic spinal cord injury may stem from a sudden, traumatic blow to your spine that fractures, dislocates, crushes or compresses one or more of your vertebrae.

It may also result from a gunshot or knife wound that penetrates and cuts your spinal cord.

spinal cord injury assessment slideshare

Additional damage usually occurs over days or weeks because of bleeding, swelling, inflammation and fluid accumulation in and around your spinal cord. A nontraumatic spinal cord injury may be caused by arthritis, cancer, inflammation, infections or disk degeneration of the spine. The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord. The spinal cord, made of soft tissue and surrounded by bones vertebraeextends downward from the base of your brain and is made up of nerve cells and groups of nerves called tracts, which go to different parts of your body.

The lower end of your spinal cord stops a little above your waist in the region called the conus medullaris. Below this region is a group of nerve roots called the cauda equina.Diagnosing paralysis is often easy to do because the main symptom — loss of muscle control in a body area — is obvious. An important part of the diagnosis is to determine the cause of the paralysis. This can be relatively straightforward if the paralysis occurs after an event such as a stroke or spinal cord injury.

To do that, the doctor might use one or more of these tests:.

spinal cord injury assessment slideshare

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Paralysis: Diagnosis and Tests. How does the doctor diagnose paralysis? To do that, the doctor might use one or more of these tests: X-ray : This test uses small amounts of radiation to produce detailed images of the dense structures inside the body, such as the bones.

CT scan : CT uses computers to combine many X-ray images into cross-sectional views of the inside of the body. Myelography : This test uses a contrast dye that is injected into the spinal canal to make the nerves show up very clearly on an X-ray, CT scan, or MRI.

Electromyography EMG : This test is used to measure the electrical activity in the muscles and nerves. Spinal tap : A long needle is injected into the spine to collect spinal fluid. Show More.After you enable Flash, refresh this page and the presentation should play. Get the plugin now. Toggle navigation.

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Spinal cord injury - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Tags: cord injury spinal male. Latest Highest Rated. Ages 16 30 y. Why do you think that is so? He was found to have a T fracture with paraplegia. He was admitted to the ICU and place on high doses of steroids for 24hrs. He was taken to surgery for external spinal stabilization. He spent two days back in the ICU, 5 days on Step Down, and is now ready to be transferred to your rehab unit. He continues to have no movement to the lower extremities.

Found in the early 80s to be highly effective to reduce the length of time for spinal shock and to reduce degree of injury Side Effects decreased immune response, risk for infection, increase serum glucose, induce depression, psychosis, risk for GI bleed 11 3 What is Spinal Shock?

Any increase of vagal response can further increase bradycardia and cause cardiac arrest.

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